Awareness -


Cyber Crime

Hacking Hacking in simple terms means an illegal intrusion into a computer system and/or network. There is an equivalent term to hacking i.e. cracking, but from Indian Laws perspective there is no difference between the term hacking and cracking. Every act committed towards breaking into a computer and/or network is hacking. Hackers write or use ready-made computer programs to attack the target computer. They possess the desire to destruct and they get the kick out of such destruction. Some hackers hack for personal monetary gains, such as to stealing the credit card information, transferring money from various bank accounts to their own account followed by withdrawal of money. They extort money from some corporate giant threatening him to publish the stolen information which is critical in nature. Government websites are the hot targets of the hackers due to the press coverage, it receives. Hackers enjoy the media coverage. Motive Behind The Crime

  • Power
  • Publicity
  • Revenge
  • Adventure
  • Desire to access forbidden information
  • Destructive mindset
  • Wants to sell n/w security services

Child Pornography

The Internet is being highly used by its abusers to reach and abuse children sexually, worldwide. The internet is very fast becoming a household commodity in India . It’s explosion has made the children a viable victim to the cyber crime. As more homes have access to internet, more children would be using the internet and more are the chances of falling victim to the aggression of pedophiles. The easy access to the pornographic contents readily and freely available over the internet lower the inhibitions of the children. Pedophiles lure the children by distributing pornographic material, then they try to meet them for sex or to take their nude photographs including their engagement in sexual positions. Sometimes Pedophiles contact children in the chat rooms posing as teenagers or a child of similar age, then they start becoming friendlier with them and win their confidence. Then slowly pedophiles start sexual chat to help children shed their inhibitions about sex and then call them out for personal interaction. Then starts actual exploitation of the children by offering them some money or falsely promising them good opportunities in life. The pedophiles then sexually exploit the children either by using them as sexual objects or by taking their pornographic pictures in order to sell those over the internet. In physical world, parents know the face of dangers and they know how to avoid & face the problems by following simple rules and accordingly they advice their children to keep away from dangerous things and ways. But in case of cyber world, most of the parents do not themselves know about the basics in internet and dangers posed by various services offered over the internet. Hence the children are left unprotected in the cyber world. Pedophiles take advantage of this situation and lure the children, who are not advised by their parents or by their teachers about what is wrong and what is right for them while browsing the internet

How do they Operate

Pedophiles use false identity to trap the children/teenagers Pedophiles contact children/teens in various chat rooms which are used by children/teen to interact with other children/teen. Befriend the child/teen. Extract personal information from the child/teen by winning his confidence. Gets the e-mail address of the child/teen and starts making contacts on the victim’s e-mail address as well. Starts sending pornographic images/text to the victim including child pornographic images in order to help child/teen shed his inhibitions so that a feeling is created in the mind of the victim that what is being fed to him is normal and that everybody does it. Extract personal information from child/teen At the end of it, the pedophile set up a meeting with the child/teen out of the house and then drag him into the net to further sexually assault him or to use him as a sex object.

Cyber Stalking

Cyber Stalking can be defined as the repeated acts harassment or threatening behavior of the cyber criminal towards the victim by using internet services. Stalking in General terms can be referred to as the repeated acts of harassment targeting the victim such as following the victim, making harassing phone calls, killing the victims pet, vandalizing victims property, leaving written messages or objects. Stalking may be followed by serious violent acts such as physical harm to the victim and the same has to be treated and viewed seriously. It all depends on the course of conduct of the stalker. Both kind of Stalkers – Online & Offline – have desire to control the victims life. Majority of the stalkers are the dejected lovers or ex-lovers, who then want to harass the victim because they failed to satisfy their secret desires. Most of the stalkers are men and victim female. How do they Operate Collect all personal information about the victim such as name, family background, Telephone Numbers of residence and work place, daily routine of the victim, address of residence and place of work, date of birth etc. If the stalker is one of the acquaintances of the victim he can easily get this information. If stalker is a stranger to victim, he collects the information from the internet resources such as various profiles, the victim may have filled in while opening the chat or e-mail account or while signing an account with some website. The stalker may post this information on any website related to sex-services or dating services, posing as if the victim is posting this information and invite the people to call the victim on her telephone numbers to have sexual services. Stalker even uses very filthy and obscene language to invite the interested persons. People of all kind from nook and corner of the World, who come across this information, start calling the victim at her residence and/or work place, asking for sexual services or relationships. Some stalkers subscribe the e-mail account of the victim to innumerable pornographic and sex sites, because of which victim starts receiving such kind of unsolicited e-mails. Some stalkers keep on sending repeated e-mails asking for various kinds of favors or threaten the victim. In online stalking the stalker can make third party to harass the victim. Follow their victim from board to board. They “hangout” on the same BB’s as their victim, many times posting notes to the victim, making sure the victim is aware that he/she is being followed. Many times they will “flame” their victim (becoming argumentative, insulting) to get their attention. Stalkers will almost always make contact with their victims through email. The letters may be loving, threatening, or sexually explicit. He will many times use multiple names when contacting the victim. Contact victim via telephone. If the stalker is able to access the victims telephon, he will many times make calls to the victim to threaten, harass, or intimidate them. Track the victim to his/her home.

Definition of Cyberstalking?

Although there is no universally accepted definition of cyberstalking, the term is used in this report to refer to the use of the Internet, e-mail, or other electronic communications devices to stalk another person. Stalking generally involves harassing or threatening behavior that an individual engages in repeatedly, such as following a person, appearing at a person’s home or place of business, making harassing phone calls, leaving written messages or objects, or vandalizing a person’s property. Most stalking laws require that the perpetrator make a credible threat of violence against the victim; others include threats against the victim’s immediate family; and still others require only that the alleged stalker’s course of conduct constitute an implied threat.(1) While some conduct involving annoying or menacing behavior might fall short of illegal stalking, such behavior may be a prelude to stalking and violence and should be treated seriously. Nature and Extent of Cyberstalking An existing problem aggravated by new technology Although online harassment and threats can take many forms, cyberstalking shares important characteristics with offline stalking. Many stalkers – online or off – are motivated by a desire to exert control over their victims and engage in similar types of behavior to accomplish this end. As with offline stalking, the available evidence (which is largely anecdotal) suggests that the majority of cyberstalkers are men and the majority of their victims are women, although there have been reported cases of women cyberstalking men and of same-sex cyberstalking. In many cases, the cyberstalker and the victim had a prior relationship, and the cyberstalking begins when the victim attempts to break off the relationship. However, there also have been many instances of cyberstalking by strangers. Given the enormous amount of personal information available through the Internet, a cyberstalker can easily locate private information about a potential victim with a few mouse clicks or key strokes. The fact that cyberstalking does not involve physical contact may create the misperception that it is more benign than physical stalking. This is not necessarily true. As the Internet becomes an ever more integral part of our personal and professional lives, stalkers can take advantage of the ease of communications as well as increased access to personal information. In addition, the ease of use and non-confrontational, impersonal, and sometimes anonymous nature of Internet communications may remove disincentives to cyberstalking. Put another way, whereas a potential stalker may be unwilling or unable to confront a victim in person or on the telephone, he or she may have little hesitation sending harassing or threatening electronic communications to a victim. Finally, as with physical stalking, online harassment and threats may be a prelude to more serious behavior, including physical violence. Denial of service Attack This is an act by the criminal, who floods the bandwidth of the victim's network or fills his e-mail box with spam mail depriving him of the services he is entitled to access or provide Short for denial-of-service attack, a type of attack on a network that is designed to bring the network to its knees by flooding it with useless traffic. Many DoS attacks, such as the Ping of Death and Teardrop attacks, exploit limitations in the TCp/IP protocols. For all known DoS attacks, there are software fixes that system administrators can install to limit the damage caused by the attacks. But, like Virus, new DoS attacks are constantly being dreamed up by Hacker.

Credit card fraud

How does credit card fraud occur? Credit card fraud happens when consumers give their credit card number to unfamiliar individuals, when cards are lost or stolen, when mail is diverted from the intended recipient and taken by criminals, or when employees of a business copy the cards or card numbers of a cardholder. What is an unauthorized charge on my credit card? credit card image An unauthorized charge is a purchase on your credit card that you did not make or permit anyone else to make. When your card is lost or stolen, the person who finds it or steals it may use it to make purchases. Criminals can use the card by forging your name, or order goods and services by phone or on the Internet. My brother stole my credit card and personal identification number (PIN) and took out a cash advance using the card. Can I still dispute the transaction? Yes, if you did not allow your brother to use your card. You may have to sign a sworn statement that your brother took the card and PIN without your permission.

What is a counterfeit credit card?

Counterfeit credit cards are fakes that have real account information stolen from victims. Often, the victims still have their real cards, so they don't know a crime has occurred. The cards appear legitimate, with issuers' logos and encoded magnetic strips. Criminals use stolen account information to create counterfeit cards or to charge items over the phone or the Internet. Counterfeit cards often are used just a few times and abandoned before the victim becomes aware and reports their misuse. Identity theft What is identity theft? Identity theft, or ID theft, is the fraudulent use of an individual's personal information—such as Social Security number or date of birth—to commit financial fraud. What happens to victims of identity theft? Identity thieves harm and inconvenience victims by using their names and other personal information to open new credit accounts or access existing credit and bank accounts, and by placing fraudulent charges on these accounts. Victims of identity theft have to dispute these charges as fraudulent, and locate and close down all bogus accounts opened in their names. Are victims of ID theft held liable for the losses? No. But while victims of identity theft are not held liable for the losses, it may take years for victims to clean up the financial and credit problems caused by the crime. Skimming, phishing and online fraud What is credit card "skimming"? Credit card skimming refers to thieves making an illegal copy of a credit card or a bank card using a device that reads and duplicates the information from the original card. Dishonest business employees use small machines called "skimmers" to read numbers and other information from credit cards and capture and resell it to criminals, who create counterfeit cards or charge items over the phone or the Internet.

What is "phishing"?

Phishing is a crime that starts with deceptive e-mails being sent to consumers. These messages are made to look as if they come from the person's bank, in an effort to get the intended victim to reveal personal information, such as bank account numbers and online passwords. Phishing has become a widespread practice of criminals, who have succeeded in stealing personal information from many people. The crime succeeds because the e-mails look legitimate, with realistic bank logos and web site addresses (URLs) that are very similar to the bank URLs. What could happen if I respond to a phishing e-mail? Account holders who respond to such e-mail messages are directed to a fake web site where they are asked to type in account numbers, passwords and other personal banking or credit card information. Then, in a matter of hours, the criminals can drain your bank accounts, using your passwords to authorize the electronic transfer of funds to accounts they control. How can I tell the difference between a scammer's e-mail and a legitimate attempt by my bank to contact me? Banks don't use e-mail communications to ask for personal information because e-mail is not secure. Hit the delete button and never respond to such an e-mail. Don't respond to e-mails—or phone calls—asking you to provide your credit card numbers, Social Security number or your mother's maiden name. Even when you have a legitimate request, banks ask that you never send detailed account information in an e-mail. This is because criminals might intercept your e-mails. When you wish to address an issue that requires personal account information, visit your bank in person, use its secure web site, place a phone call or write a letter. How can I protect the bank and credit card accounts I access online? Change your user name and password several times per year. Never use variations of your name, children's names, birth date, address, etc., that might be guessed by criminals. Examine your bank's web site home page and log-in screens carefully. If the look of the site changes, contact the bank by phone before logging in to ask if they have made site changes and to let them know you have concerns. What is a credit card "security code" and what purpose does it serve? Many credit cards have a special numerical code used by many merchants to verify that the card is in your possession when you make purchases by phone or on the Internet. These 3- or 4-digit numbers are found at the top right corner of the card or on the back, following the credit card number, near the space where you sign the card. If your card number and expiration date were stolen, but not the card itself, the thief would not have access to this security code. What should I do when I receive a new credit card? As a protection, most card issuers now suggest that you call from your home phone to activate a new card before you use it. Sign the back of the card as soon as you receive it. Some people suggest writing "ask for ID" in the signature space. This is not a good idea. Many credit card issuers have advised merchants not to let purchases go through if the cardholder hasn't signed the card. Protecting yourself How can I prepare myself in case my card is lost or stolen? Record all your account numbers and company contact information and keep this list in a safe and secure place. Do not keep it in your wallet or purse. How can I protect myself against unauthorized charges? Keep copies of your vouchers and ATM receipts, so that you can check them against your billing statements. Notify your card issuer immediately if you suspect unauthorized use or fraudulent use of your card. How can I avoid becoming a victim of credit card fraud? It might not be possible to guarantee that you won't become a victim of fraud, but you can take these steps to cut down on your chances: Safeguard your wallet or purse at all times. Never leave your purse or wallet unattended in public. Never carry all your cards—only the one or two that you might need. Carry your credit cards separately from your wallet in a credit card case or in another compartment in your purse. If your credit card is lost or stolen, call your credit card issuers immediately. What is mail fraud and how can I avoid it? Mail fraud is the illegal use of the postal service to commit a crime, such as the theft of mail. To avoid mail fraud: Notify the post office immediately if you change your address. Make sure your mailbox is secure and always locked. Never leave outgoing bill payments in your mailbox or apartment building lobby. Instead drop them off at the post office or postal service mailboxes. Call your credit card and banking companies to change your billing address when you move. Always put your return address on the envelope. Shred before discarding all unwanted credit card solicitations. Be aware of when your credit card and other bills are due to arrive each month, and call the companies if you fail to receive them. What is "zero liability" on a credit card? Credit card payments processed by Visa, MasterCard, American Express and Discover are subject to a “zero liability” policy—a guarantee that you will not be held responsible for any fraudulent charges. What are some ways I can protect my credit card when I use it online? Payment card networks, such as Visa, MasterCard and American Express, offer services to help you avoid fraud, such as special verification passwords. Make sure you are using a secure merchant site by dealing only with well-known reputable stores and checking that your browser is in the secure mode before making a purchase. (Look for a padlock or other security symbol in the lower right corner of your browser window.) Avoid websites that offer "free access" if you provide your credit card number. If you give them the number, your card is likely to be charged by the company you give it to, and maybe by companies unknown to you as well. I bank online—is there anything I can do to protect my personal information? If you bank online, don't use your Internet browser to automatically fill in your user name and password when you log in to bank or credit card sites, or to any merchant site that keeps your card number on file. Anyone using your computer would be able to sign on automatically and access your accounts. You can deactivate this function in your Internet browser's "preferences" menu under "security." How can I make sure that my personal identification number (PIN) is safe? With your PIN number and your card, a thief can make cash advance withdrawals from your account at an ATM machine. Keep your PIN secure by following these tips: Never write down your PIN—memorize it.
Never give your PIN to anyone.
Don't write your PIN number on your credit card.
Don't write your credit card number on a post card or on the outside of an envelope you are going to mail.
Don't keep your PIN number in the same place as your credit card or ATM card.
How can I protect my credit cards?
Never provide your credit card number or other personal information on the phone, unless you are able to verify that you are speaking with your financial institution or a merchant you trust. When you lend your card, you are responsible for all charges. You will not be protected against unauthorized use if someone to whom you knowingly and willingly gave the card, including family and friends, makes the charges. Don't give your account number to anyone who calls you on the phone.
How can I protect myself from credit card skimming or any other attempt to steal my credit card number?
Watch closely as store and restaurant employees handle your card to make sure they are not copying or skimming your credit card number. The devices used for skimming are sometimes disguised as cell phones. After you make a purchase and your card is handed back to you, make sure it is your card and not a dummy card or another person's card. I plan to take a trip and to use my credit card while I am away. Should I notify my credit card company?
If you are going to be traveling and plan to use your card away from home, notify your credit card company. This may prevent your account from being flagged for possible fraud and any inconvenience you might suffer if your issuer blocks your account.
We are going to renovate our bathroom and pay for the materials with our credit card. Should we let our credit card company know about our plans?
If you are going to make any unusually large purchases, notify your card company so that your account is not flagged for possible fraud. For instance, if you are renovating your home and plan to purchase materials, fixtures or appliances, let your issuer know in advance.
Why should I care about fraud when my credit card company has to pay for it, not me? Consumers are not financially responsible for unauthorized charges if they behave responsibly and report lost or stolen cards, but credit card companies experience losses of close to $50 billion dollars per year because of credit card fraud. These costs "trickle down" in the form of higher interest rates and fees that are paid for by all consumers. What are credit card companies doing to fight fraud? Most credit card companies have developed the technology to help identify fraudulent activity and they will act quickly to stop misuse once they discover it. Your card company may contact you because it notices an especially large purchase or a charge made in a town that is not near your home or in another country. Occasionally, your card may be blocked or suspended until you call the company back. To avoid any inconvenience, notify your card company if you plan to be out of town or to make any large purchases.
Your billing statement Is there any way that I can monitor my credit card between statements?
Yes. If you have Internet access, consider enrolling at the bank's web site so you can access your credit card account online. You can monitor your account online for unauthorized charges between statements.
Why is it important to review my credit card statement when it arrives? To protect yourself against unauthorized credit card charges, report fraud as soon as you become aware of it. Review credit card statements the day you receive them and report any questionable charges to your card issuer immediately.
What should I do if my credit card statement does not arrive?
If one of your credit card bills is late, call the card issuer right away. A missing statement may indicate that your statement has been stolen. Call your issuer if you don't receive your statement at the usual time. (You are responsible for paying your bills on time even when you didn't receive the statement.) What should I do with old statements after I have paid them? Store old statements and receipts in a secure place and shred them before you discard them. What will happen if I move and forget to change my mailing address with my credit card company? If you don’t update your address, you may not receive the billing statement in time to avoid a late payment charge. Make sure to update your records with your credit card company when you move. Many merchants verify your address and ZIP code to make sure they match the bank's records. I got a phone call from someone selling "credit card loss protection insurance." Is this a good thing to buy?
No. Be wary of credit card protection offers. This type of insurance is unnecessary because central law limits your credit card fraud liability. But scam artists try to sell $200-$300 credit card insurance by falsely claiming that cardholders face significant financial risk if their cards are misused. According to recent central Trade Commission estimates, 3.3 million consumers have purchased unnecessary insurance to prevent unauthorized use of their credit cards. To make sure you are fully protected against unauthorized use, report missing cards right away, before they are used. This way you are not responsible for any fraudulent charges. If a thief uses your card before you report it missing, the most you will owe under central law for unauthorized charges is $50. If your card has a zero liability policy, you will owe nothing.
Should I pay for a service that will notify all my card issuers if my cards are lost or stolen?
Save money by doing it yourself. Keep credit card account numbers and toll-free numbers in a separate place from your credit cards so that you can easily find the information when you need it.
Reporting credit card fraud What should I do when my card is lost or stolen? If you lose your credit cards or realize that they have been lost or stolen, call the issuers immediately. Most credit card companies have 24-hour customer service lines to deal with emergencies. Ask your issuer if it recommends that you follow up with a letter, and if so, ask what information you need to include in the letter. Report the loss of your card as soon you can. If someone has used your card without your permission, your maximum liability under central law is $50 per card.
What law protects my credit history from being damaged if I am a victim of identity theft or credit card fraud? You have the right to get a free credit report if you are the victim of identify theft.You can also avail your rights through Consumer Forum What is a credit card "billing error"? A billing error is defined as:
A credit card charge for something you did not agree to buy. A purchase made by a person who is not authorized to use your account. A charge that is not properly identified, that is for a different amount than the actual purchase, or that was charged more than once. A charge for something that was not delivered or not accepted by you when delivered. A mathematical error on your billing statement. A failure to properly credit a payment or other credit to your account. A failure to mail the bill to your current address, provided you told the creditor about any address change at least 20 days before the end of the billing period. Any charge which you cannot identify without more information. What is my liability for charges made without my permission by someone who found or stole my credit card?
You’ll owe nothing if you report the lost card before unauthorized charges are made. When unauthorized purchases or cash advances were made, central law restricts your liability to fix price. However, if you card has a “zero liability” policy, you will not be liable for fraudulent charges. When I checked my account online, I saw a charge I didn't make on my credit card. What should I do? With online access, you can monitor posted transactions on a daily basis. This can help you monitor your account for fraud. If you look at your account online and see a charge that you didn't make, contact your credit card company immediately. Notify the company even if the card is still in your possession. You may be told that you must wait because you can't dispute "unbilled activity" until it shows up on a monthly statement. Tell the company that this is more than just a dispute—you suspect fraud.

Phishing

The act of sending an e-mail to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft. The e-mail directs the user to visit a Web site where they are asked to update personal information, such as passwords and credit card, social security, and bank account numbers, that the legitimate organization already has. The Web site, however, is bogus and set up only to steal the user's information. By spamming large groups of people, the phishers counted on the e-mail being read by a percentage of people who actually had listed credit card numbers with legitimately. Phishing, also referred to as brand spoofing or carding, is a variation on phishing the idea being that bait is thrown out with the hopes that while most will ignore the bait, some will be tempted into biting.
Internet Guidelines for Children The objective of the guidelines to the children is not only for imposing restrictions or limiting to their access for restricted sites but also to help children in understanding the necessity for the rules to access the internet so that they can take the responsibility for their own actions and to develop their own judgment on their actions and consequences thereof. Some useful guidelines for internet users:
Agree what types of sites are permissible (or safe) to access Don't reveal your password to others Don’t open e-mails from people whom you don’t know Others privacy and safety are equally important as ours Don’t trust anyone online while using chat, e-mail or other online services. Don't give out personal information, photos, family details online Uncomfortable mails may be reported to parents or authorities Avoid face-to-face meetings with online friends Be aware of copyright issues while using the online information. Don’t click links or URLs that look suspicious Avoid downloading free softwares which may contain viruses Common Characteristics of Phishing Scam Emails Unsolicited requests for sensitive information Content appears genuine Disguised hyperlinks and sender address Email consists of a clickable image Generic Greetings Use various ruses to entice recipients to click The customer's account details need to be updated due to a software or security upgrade. The customer's account may be terminated if account details are not provided within a specified time frame. Suspect or fraudulent activity involving the user's account has been detected and the user must therefore provide information urgently. Routine or random security procedures require that the user verify his or her account by providing the requested information. What to do if you receive a Suspected Phishing Scam? DO NOT click on any links in the scam email. DO NOT supply any personal information of any kind as a result of the email DO NOT reply to the email or attempt to contact the senders in any way. DO NOT supply any information on the bogus website that may appear in your browser if you have clicked a link in the email. DO NOT open any attachments that arrive with the email REPORT the phishing scam – confirm with the organization for authenticity of the email received. DELETE the email as soon as possible. General Scam Indicators Be wary of unsolicited emails that: Promise you money, jobs or prizes Ask for donations Propose lucrative business deals Ask you to provide sensitive personal information Ask you to follow a link to a website and log on to an account. Do not’s for Mobile Users Do not give your mobile phone numbers while chatting over the internet to avoid stalking. And do not lend it either. Do not use or buy a used SIM card. Make sure your SIM card is bought and registered under your name with your permanent address, Do not lend your mobile phone, and try to password protect the phone if the facility is available in the handset. Do not use the mobile for obscene/pornographic images, videos or SMS and MMS. Do not assume that any crime done with your mobile is undetectable. Take care when using your phone in public places – do not flash it around Avoid leaving your phone unattended - treat it like you would treat your wallet or purse Make a note of the mobile's serial number - you can find it by typing *#06# on your phone. The serial number can help to track the mobile if it's ever stolen / lost.
Call the service provider immediately, in case your mobile phone is stolen. They will block use of the stolen SIM card in their network. Report it to the police as soon as the crime occurs. Cell Phone Etiquettes
There are certain things people just shouldn't do with cell phones. Do not talk on your cell phone while driving. Do not talk on your cell phone in classrooms. (You’re disturbing others too!) Turn your cell phone to silent/vibrate mode in Places of Worship, Funerals, Job Interviews, Banks and places where you are requested to do so. Turn off your cell phone in flights.
Turn off the cell phones, where there is any kind of such direction from the authorities. Do not take photos / videos using cell phones without consent of others. Do not send, transfer or store pornographic contents using cell phones.
Turn your cell phone off when you are at the movies or at least don't check the messages – people around you will be disturbed by the screen light up. Never take a personal mobile call during a business meeting. This includes interviews and meetings with co-workers or subordinates. Maintain at least a 10-foot zone from anyone while talking.
Never talk in elevators, libraries, museums, restaurants, cemeteries, theaters, dentist or doctor waiting rooms, places of worship, auditoriums or other enclosed public spaces, such as hospital emergency rooms or buses. And don't have any emotional conversations in public, ever.

Crime Against Women And Children

Crime Against Women And Children

    In order to realize the full scope of violence against women, it is necessary to consider some of its component parts. These forms of violence are all quite different, as are the circumstances that give rise to them. Each of these practices and all other forms of violence against women, are horrific-as well as criminal-and must be condemned. This is not an exhaustive list but a summary of the major types of violence against women.
    RAPE is forced, unwanted sexual intercourse. Rape knows no borders as it affects females in every country in the world. Rape has even been perpetrated on girls as young as 2, and against women as old as 90. In contexts of war and conflict, rape is prevalent, sometimes using guns and other objects in brutal force.
    SEXUAL ASSAULT is unwanted sexual contact that stops short of rape or attempted rape. Sexual assault takes many forms and is pervasive, occurring at work, in the home or within the community and should never be treated as anything less than a serious offense. Perpetrators may be family members or trusted members of the community, but this does not change the severity or danger of their actions.
    DOMESTIC VIOLENCE refers to physical and sexual attacks in the home within a family or an intimate relationship. It includes intimate partner violence, marital rape, assault and battery, and sexual abuse of children in the household. Worldwide, 40–70 percent of all female murder victims are killed by an intimate partner.
    DOWRY MURDER is a practice in which a bride’s husband and/or in-laws kill her because her parents are unable to deliver the full amount or meet an increased demand of her dowry. It has also been reported that dowry demands have played and continue to play an important role in women being burned to death.
    EARLY MARRIAGE involves the forced marriage of a young girl, who is then extremely vulnerable to sexual violence. Early marriage refers to a forced marriage of a girl under the age of eighteen; girls as young as six or seven have been victims. Early or forced marriage jeopardizes a girl’s physical, emotional and spiritual well-being.
    FEMICIDE indicates the systematic killing of women and girls. This extreme act culminates in murder but may include torture, mutilation, cruelty and sexual violence. Femicide is most notorious in several Latin and Central American countries, though it occurs in other regions as well. Sex-selective abortions are another form of femicide, more prevalent in Asia, particularly in countries that do not value female children or when there is a limit on births per family.
    FEMALE GENITAL CUTTING refers to practices that are often deeply rooted in traditional understandings of purity and chastity. In the context of rituals or rites of passage, cutting operations, which can cause irreparable pain and health problems, affect nearly 2 million women and girls each year. Between 100 and 140 million women and girls in the world are estimated to have undergone female genital cutting. Religious leaders must defend the right for all women to live healthy and peaceful lives by condemning this cruel act, which is often based on misused religious principles and misunderstandings
    HONOR KILLING refers to the murder of women due to their perceived disgrace to the family’s or community’s “honor” for things such as accused premarital sex, accused adultery, inappropriate behavior such as leaving the house without a male relative, and even rape. Preservation of honor is usually veiled in religious language, a dangerous manipulation of religion to justify an inexcusable practice. Women have been publicly stoned to death, burned alive and attacked with acid for such accused disgraces.
Constitutional Safeguards for Dalits
    The important Constitutional safeguards for SCs & STs are mentioned below:
    (a) Directive Principles of State Policy
    Article 46 is a comprehensive article comprising both the developmental and regulatory aspects. It reads as follows:
    "The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections, of the people, and in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation". (b) Social Safeguards Article 17. "Untouchability" is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden. The enforcement of any disability arising out of "Untouchability" shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.
    To give effect to this Article, Parliament made an enactment viz., Untouchability (Offences) Act, 1955. To make the provisions of this Act more stringent, the Act was amended in 1976 and was also renamed as the Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955. As provided under the Act, Government of India also notified the Rules, viz., the PCR Rules, 1977, to carry out the provisions of this Act. As cases of atrocities on SCs/STs were not covered under the provisions of PCR Act, 1955, Parliament passed another important Act in 1989 for taking measures to prevent the atrocities. This act known as the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989, became effective from 30.1.1990. For carrying out the provisions of this Act the Govt. of India have notified the SCs and the STs (Prevention of Atrocities) Rules, 1995 on 31.3.1995.
    Article 23. Prohibits traffic in human beings and begar and other similar forms of forced labour and provides that any contravention of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law. It does not specifically mention SCs & STs but since the majority of bonded labour belong to SCs/STs this Article has a special significance for SCs and STs. In pursuance of this article, Parliament has enacted the Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976. For effective implementation of this Act, the Ministry of Labour is running a Centrally Sponsored Scheme for identification, liberation and rehabilitation of bonded labour.
    Article 24 provides that no child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment. There are Central and State laws to prevent child labour. This article too is significant for SCs and STs as a substantial portion, if not the majority, of child labour engaged in hazardous employment belong to SCs and STs.
    Article 25(2)(b) provides that Hindu religious institutions of a public character shall be thrown open to all classes and sections of Hindus. This provision is relevant as some sects of Hindus used to claim that only members of the concerned sects had a right to enter their temples. This was only a subterfuge to prevent entry of SC persons in such temples. For the purpose of this provision the term Hindu includes Sikh, Jaina and Budhist.
    Educational and Cultural Safeguards Article 15(4) empowers the State to make any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for SC and ST. This provision has enabled the State to reserve seats for SCs and STs in educational institutions including technical, engineering and medical colleges and in Scientific & Specialised Courses. In this as well as in Article 16(4) the term 'backward classes' is used as a generic term and comprises various categories of backward classes, viz., Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Other Backward Classes, Denotified Communities (Vimukta Jatiyan) and Nomadic/Seminomadic communities.
    Article 330 provides for reservation of seats for SCs/STs in the Lok Sabha.
    Article 332 provides for reservation of seats for SCs/STs in the State Vidhan Sabhas (Legislative Assemblies).
    Article 334 originally laid down that the provision relating to the reservation of seats for SCs/STs in the Lok Sabha and the State Vidhan Sabhas (and the representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the Lok Sabha and the State Vidhan Sabhas by nomination) would cease to have effect on the expiration of a period of ten years from the commencement of the Constitution. This article has since been amended four times, extending the said period by ten years on each occasion. This provision was to expire in January 2000.

    Service Safeguards


    Article 16(4) empowers the State to make "any provision for the reservation in appointments or posts in favour of any backward class of citizens which, in the opinion of the State, is not adequately represented in the services under the State".
    Article 16(4A). Nothing in this Article shall prevent the State from making any provision for reservation in matters of promotion to any class or classes of posts in the services under the State in favour of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes which, in the opinion of the State, are not adequately represented in the services under the State".
    Article 335. "The claims of the members of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes shall be taken into consideration, consistently with the maintenance of efficiency of administration, in the making of appointments to services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or of a State".
    Article 320(4) provides that nothing in clause (3) shall require a Public Service Commission to be consulted as respects the manner in which any provision under Article 16(4) & 16(4)A may be made or the manner in which effect may be given to the provisions of Article 335.

    STATUTES AND LEGISLATIONS


    There are a number of laws, both Central and State, which provide for safeguards to SCs/STs. Some of these emanate from the various Constitutional provisions. An illustrative list of such laws is given below:
    The Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955. The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989. The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976. The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986. Acts and regulations in force in different States to prevent alienation of land belonging to SCs/STs. In some States such provision exists in the Land Revenue Code. Acts in different States for restoration of alienated land to SCs/STs.
Personal Safety

Basic Street Sense


Wherever you are - on the street, in an office building or shopping mall, driving, waiting for a bus or subway - stay alert and tuned in to your surroundings.
Send the message that you're calm, confident, and know where you're going.
Trust your instincts. If something or someone makes you uneasy, avoid the person or leave
Know the neighborhoods where you live and work. Check out the locations of police and fire stations, public telephones, hospitals, or stores that are open late.
Look confident. Walk with your head up, as if you know where you are going. Keep your hands free - don't walk about with them in your pockets.
Keep to well-used roads. Don't use alleyways or short cuts.
Think ahead and plan your journey, avoiding deserted areas.
In the dark, always stick to well-lit areas. If you think you are being followed, cross the road.
If you start to be frightened, try not to panic. Always try to think around situations.
Public Transport
Use well-lighted, busy stops.
If someone harasses you, don't be embarrassed. Look for help around you.
Watch who gets off with you. If you feel uneasy, walk directly to a place where there are other people.
Travel Tips
It is always worth letting someone know where you are going, the route you intend to take and when you expect to return. Plan your journeys - work out how to get there and back.
Put aside enough money for the return fare. If you lose your fare money or ticket, speak to the driver/guard/ticket officer and explain. Carry some identification on you to prove that you are genuine.
Never be tempted to walk home alone, especially if it's dark or you are unsure of the area.
If Someone Tries To Rob You Report the crime to the police. Try to describe the attacker accurately. Your actions can help prevent others from becoming victims.

Vehicle Crime

Buying A Used Car
Always ask to see proof of the seller's identity and address - an official letter or driving licence, for example.
Make sure the car's Vehicle Identification Number (chassis number) matches that on the registration document.
Never let the seller bring the car to you, as you may need to confirm their address details.
Never buy a car without the registration document.
Check the car's history and second-hand status. If in doubt, ask some reputable organisation to inspect the car before agreeing to buy. You may also get in touch with the Detective Department and ask for details of the car. Common Car sense Keep your car in good running condition. Make sure there's enough petrol to get where you're going and back.
Always roll up the windows and lock car doors, even if you're coming right back. Check inside and out before getting in.
Avoid parking in isolated areas. Be especially alert in parking lots and underground parking garages. If possible, always park in busy, well-lit area. If you think someone is following you, don't head home. Drive to the nearest police or fire station, or other open business to get help.
Don't pick up hitchhikers. Don't hitchhike. Never leave the car keys in the car, even for a second. Make sure they are kept in a secure place at home and at work. Never leave cash, credit cards, cheque book, mobile phones, or valuables in the car. Install a good quality alarm system in your car or motor cycle. Home Security
Burglary Prevention Advice Burglary, on the whole, is an opportunist crime. A burglar will select his target because it offers him the best opportunity to carry out his crime undetected and with the fewest number of obstacles in his way. A building that presents itself as unoccupied and insecure is far more likely to be targeted than one that is properly secured. If you take the precautions outlined below, a thief will quickly see what he is up against and probably look for an easier target. Be aware of the need to protect your home and yourself at all times
Install good quality locks.
Consider installing an intruder alarm system.
Display your house number clearly to enable emergency vehicles to find your house easily.
Never leave notes which a thief could read (to family, friends, etc).
Don't leave keys in "hiding places" around the house for a thief to find. Leave spare keys with a trusted friend.
Keep valuable documents in a bank, with a lawyer, etc.
Don't leave your house keys with your car keys when having your vehicle serviced or when using a parking station. Never keep large sums of cash or easily stolen valuables, such as jewelry, unprotected in your home. Keep valuables you don't often use in a bank safe deposit
Loc
k all the doors and windows whenever you leave the house, even if it is just to go into the backyard or to the nearby shop, Don't invite the burglar into your home. Remove temptation. Make it look as though your house is occupied.

Before you go on a vacation!!

Tell your neighbour when and where you are going. Cancel mail, newspaper, milk etc. Give your neighbour a phone number Turn telephone sound down. Lock all doors, close all windows. Install outside lights and keep them on at night. Have a neighbour or friend pop round to clear your letterbox. Remember: Remove the Opportunity - Prevent the Burglary

Bogus Callers

Not all burglars break into homes - some will try to trick or con their way in. They are known as bogus callers and will pretend to be on official business from respectable concerns such as the Utility Companies - Gas, Electricity and so on. They may claim to be tradesmen or workmen calling to carry out urgent repairs. Bogus callers succeed because they sound believable, so don't be fooled. Make sure in your own mind that they are who they claim to be by following these simple steps:
Think before you open the door - use the door keyhole or look out of the window to see if you recognise them. Ask callers for proof of identity. Genuine tradesmen should carry some sort of identification. Check this carefully. If you are unsure, telephone the company the caller claims to represent. Beware of callers who attempt to distract you by claiming that they have seen something untoward in your rear garden or somewhere which may encourage you to leave your house - they may have an accomplice awaiting this distraction. If you are not convinced of the identity of the caller, don't let them in. Ask the caller to come back later and arrange for a friend, relative or neighbour to be present on their return or ask the caller to contact this person. What if someone asks to use your phone? Say no, and send them to the nearest phone booth. Or offer to make the call for them, locking them outside your home.
When you admit a repairman or salesman, do not leave him alone for even a few minutes. If you get a 'wrong number' phone call, don't chat. Just say 'wrong number' and hang up quickly. Never give your name and address.